14 Free Resources for Primary Source Documents ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

The Library of Congress offers classroom materials and professional development to help teachers effectively use primary sources from the Library’s vast digital collections in their teaching. Find Library of Congress lesson plans and more that meet Common Core standards, state content standards, and the standards of national organizations.

Life Photo Archive is a good platform to search for millions of photographs stretching from the 1750s to today. Most were never published and are now available for the first time through the joint work of LIFE and Google. Add “source:life” to any Google image search and search only the LIFE photo archive. For example: computer source:life
Newer PostDesigned for high school and college teachers and students, History Matters serves as a gateway to web resources and offers other useful materials for teaching U.S. history

1- Library of Congress

3- America in Class
The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use.

9- Life Photo Archive
10- Milestone Documents
This websites offers collections of primary resources compatible with the Common Core State Standards — historical documents, literary texts, and works of art — thematically organized with notes and discussion questions.

Funded by a grant from the Library of Congress PSN provides no-cost teacher professional development to help K-12 educators provide high-quality classroom instruction using the millions of digitized primary sources available from www.loc.gov.
Primary sources are resources that were first-hand created in a given period of time and never undergone any kind of editing or distortion. These sources are multimodal and they come in different forms. They can be artifacts, documents, pictures, recordings, essays, photographs, maps…etc. Now with the globalization of knowledge and the pervasive use of digital media, primary sources become accessible to everybody with an internet connection. However, the search for these materials is akin to a scavenger hunt and hence the importance of having a handy list such as the one below to keep for rainy days.
For our colleagues teaching in Europe, this website feature sources on European history. It offers selected transcripts, facsimiles and translations on different historical periods .
Whether you teach social studies, history, literature, Geography or any other content area where there is a need for original and primary source documents, the list below will definitely be a good starting point for searching and assembling primary sources.
14- World Digital Library

7- The Avalon Project

8- Persus Digital Library

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4- Chronicling America

The World Digital Library (WDL) makes available on the Internet, free of charge and in multilingual format, significant primary materials from countries and cultures around the world.
Search America’s historic newspaper pages from 1836-1922 or use the U.S. Newspaper Directory to find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present. Chronicling America is sponsored jointly by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Library of Congress.

Milestone Documents provides a growing collection of primary sources for teachers.You’ll find material from nearly every time period and location, plus pedagogical support designed by teachers for teachers.

12- Euro Docs
2- Primary Source Nexus
11- Internet History Sourcebook Project
Persus Digital Library is another wonderful resource for primary source documents. Under the tab “collections and text” you can browse from thousands of resources all archived in digital format.
13- History Matters

I have been scouring the web for several hours and finally come up with this selection. I have also come across several other lists of primary sources curated by other educators but the one that stood out to me the most is Edutopia’s list.
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Avalon Project in Yale University provides a wide collection of primary source documents and materials on different areas including law, history, and diplomacy
HomeDocs Teach provides thousands of primary source documents that span the course of American history. to bring the past to life as classroom teaching tools from the billions preserved at the National Archives. Use the search field to find written documents, images, maps, charts, graphs, audio and video in our ever-expanding collection that spans the course of American history.
The Digital Archive contains once-secret documents from governments all across the globe, uncovering new sources and providing fresh insights into the history of international relations and diplomacy

5- Docs Teach

6- Digital Archive Wilson Centre
Just hours after state buying term papers attorney general mike beebe asked the justices to give the legislature more time to act, the court ruled on jan

A smorgasbord of fusion words for the Twitterati | OxfordWords blog

Photo credit: MOSO IMAGE / Shutterstock.com.

Following the recent dreadful events in Japan, another loanword that has been much in the news is, of course, tsunami. This Japanese word, now well-established in English, denotes a long, high sea wave caused by an earthquake. But, as in the above cases, this has also formed the basis of a composite word. A massive increase in the number of flu cases was reported in Canada in January 2011, and this surge in patient figures was inevitably referred to as a flunami (combining flu and tsunami).

    And, in these difficult economic times, have you perhaps become a frugalista or a recessionista? Both these terms have emerged in the last few years to describe people who manage to dress in a fashionable and stylish way without spending a lot of money on clothes. Each is in turn a play on fashionista, a word dating from the early 90s which describes a person involved in the fashion industry or who wears fashionable clothes. The Spanish ending –ista (as in Sandinista) has been used productively in English for a while to describe a devotee or admirer of something or someone, especially in political contexts. For example, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair had his Blairistas and US politician Sarah Palin has her Palinistas.

    Twitterati is ultimately derived from literati, a term borrowed from Latin in the 17th century and used to describe people who are well-educated and well-read. Punning on this, the term glitterati was coined in the 1950s to refer to the ‘glittering’ stars of show business and smart society. More recently appeared the digerati (the digital literati, as it were), experts in information technology. And so to the Twitterati themselves, the ranks of Twitter-users, particularly the influential ones with many followers.

    Double-dip dress style: frugalistas and recessionistas

    Of course, new English words are regularly formed in this way, with two words clamped or stitched together to create a blend. Think of edutainment, guesstimate, mockumentary, staycation, and countless other examples. What particularly intrigues me about the likes of Twitterati and frugalista, however, is the cross-lingual aspect. In fact it makes me think of fusion cooking, in which more than one style of regional or ethnic cuisine are combined to produce dishes incorporating elements of both. And the delicious-to-say smushi is a delightful example to end with, as it fuses not only two culinary styles (it’s a snack that combines the Scandinavian smorgasbord open sandwich and the Japanese sushi) but also the two words themselves, one Swedish, one Japanese.

    A surge of linguistic borrowing

A smorgasbord of fusion words for the Twitterati

So –erati has become a useful little suffix, a convenient way of giving a name to some elite group of people in a particular sphere. There has been a profusion of these words over the last twenty years or so, but by no means all of them have caught on: chatterati, soccerati, glamourati, bloggerati… Well, you get the idea.

In March 2011 the social networking site Twitter, launched in 2006, celebrated its fifth birthday. Amid all the media discussion of tweeters, trending, and followers, the term Twitterati has cropped up quite a bit. It’s an odd-looking word, and an example of an interesting and creative variety of word formation, where a word is borrowed from another language and then modified to produce a curious semi-foreign hybrid.


  • The opinions and other information contained in OxfordWords blog posts and comments do not necessarily reflect the opinions or positions of Oxford University Press.
  • 8 great band name origins | OxfordWords blog

    Although there is some doubt that it ever actually existed, an iron maiden refers to a historical instrument of torture that consisted of box shaped like a coffin that is lined with nails. Appropriate name for a heavy metal band!

    2. Iron Maiden

    5. Wilco

    Radio enthusiasts probably recognize the name of this alternative rock band as an abbreviation of ‘will comply’, meaning ‘I understand and will comply’. The term is used as a procedure word (or ‘proword’) especially in radio operations.

    7. Devo

    1. Foo Fighters

    3. Megadeth

    8 great band name origins

    8. Yo La Tengo

    6. Led Zeppelin

    The story goes that vocalist Danny Hutton’s girlfriend, actress June Fairchild, was reading a magazine article about indigenous Australians, when she came across the term three dog night, referring to a night so cold that a man would sleep with three dogs to keep warm. Whether the term was ever widely used is debatable, but the name remains a landmark of pop quirkiness regardless.

    One thing that rock bands are known for are their creative names. There’s the legendary name of Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd, named for Florida high school gym teacher Leonard Skinner who taught several of the band’s members, and who was remembered for enforcing the high school’s rule about no long hair on men. There’s also The Guess Who, named in advance of the release of their first album as a clever marketing ploy.


    This name comes from the term devolution, in the sense of ‘evolutionary degeneration’, or the opposite of evolution, a concept that the band has played with since its inception.

    Once you know that the basic template for this seminal hard rock band was the term lead balloon, as in the phrase to go over like a lead balloon, or to be poorly received, the oddball name makes a bit more sense. According to music journalist Keith Shadwick, the name started as a joke between Keith Moon and John Entwistle, the drummer and bassist of The Who, respectively, and Jimmy Page and Jeff Beck, who had discussed forming a ‘supergroup’. At some point, Moon and Entwistle apparently quipped that such a band would have gone over like a lead balloon. Switching out balloon for zeppelin and dropping the ‘a’ to avoid confusion with its heteronym, the name Led Zeppelin was created.

    But lots of bands out there have creative names with fun etymological roots; here are a few of my favorite band name origins.

    As the origin story goes, guitarist Dave Mustaine had just been fired from Metallica, and was riding a bus when he found a political pamphlet that referred to a megadeath, a unit used in quantifying the casualties of nuclear war, equal to the deaths of one million people. It wasn’t long after that Mustaine had formed his own band, later changing the name to Megadeth, trendily misspelling the word by leaving out the ‘a’.

      Although Dave Grohl is probably the first thing most people today think of when they hear the term foo fighter, the term actually refers to an ‘unidentified flying object of a kind reported by US pilots during World War II, usually described as a bright light or ball of fire’.

      4. Three Dog Night

    • The opinions and other information contained in OxfordWords blog posts and comments do not necessarily reflect the opinions or positions of Oxford University Press.
    • The story of how a critically lauded indie band from Hoboken, New Jersey ended up with a  sentence as its name goes back to the inaugural 1962 season of the New York Mets baseball team. Following several collisions between English-speaking center fielder Richie Ashburn and Spanish-speaking shortstop Elio Chacón – Ashburn had been calling out ‘I got it’ to signal that he would catch the fly ball, but wasn’t understood by Chacón – Ashburn learned to call ‘yo la tengo’ (‘I’ve got it’ in Spanish). Upon using the Spanish sentence in a game, though, Ashburn was plowed over by left fielder Frank Thomas, who spoke no Spanish.

      It’s really hard to write my essay by https://writemyessay4me.org/ change everything you do

    17 pronunciations of Italian cuisine | OxfordWords blog

    5. ciabatta

    A salami is a ‘type of highly seasoned sausage, originally from Italy, usually eaten cold in slices’.

    10. lasagne

    Beware of that ‘express’ pronunciation! ‘Espresso’ refers to ‘strong black coffee made by forcing steam through ground coffee beans’.

      2. bruschetta


      ‘Bruschetta’ is ‘toasted Italian bread drenched in olive oil and served typically with garlic or tomatoes’.

      8. frangipane

      This café favourite refers to a ‘coffee made with milk that has been frothed up with pressurized steam’.

      This term refers to food (usually pasta) that is ‘cooked so as to be still firm when bitten’. In Italian, al dente literally means ‘to the tooth’.

      Macaroni is a ‘variety of pasta formed in narrow tubes’.

      ‘Farfalle’ refers to ‘small pieces of pasta shaped like bows or butterflies’ wings. The word farfalla means ‘butterfly’ in Italian.

      3. calzone

      1. bolognese

      12. calamari

      This refers to ‘an almond-flavored cream or paste’ or a pastry filled with this.

      11. al dente

      This term refers to ‘squid served as food’. The word calamari comes from the medieval Latin calamarium ‘pen case’, itself from the Greek kalamos ‘pen’, with reference to the squid’s inner shell and its production of ink.

      9. gnocchi

      ‘Panettone’ is a ‘rich Italian bread made with eggs, fruit, and butter and typically eaten at Christmas’.

      15. panettone

      4. cappuccino

      Avoid awkward dinner dates with these 17 Italian pronunciations

      7. farfalle

      This refers to a ‘thick soup containing vegetables and pasta’.

      17. salami

      ‘Spaghetti’ refers to a ‘pasta made in long, slender, solid strings’, as well as to a dish containing this pasta, typically with a sauce.

      ‘Ciabatta’ is a ‘type of flattish, open-textured Italian bread with a floury crust, made with olive oil’.

      ‘Gnocchi’ refers to ‘small dumplings made from potato, semolina, or flour, usually served with a sauce’.

      Spelled both as lasagna and lasagne, this word generally refers to ‘pasta in the form of wide strips’, but also to a ‘baked Italian dish consisting of wide strips of pasta cooked and layered with meat or vegetables, cheese, and tomato sauce’.

      6. espresso

    • The opinions and other information contained in OxfordWords blog posts and comments do not necessarily reflect the opinions or positions of Oxford University Press.
    • A ‘calzone’ is a ‘type of pizza that is folded in half before cooking to contain a filling’.

      This refers to a dish made with bolognese sauce, a ‘sauce of ground beef, tomato, onion, and herbs, typically served with pasta’.

      For English speakers, navigating a menu in an Italian restaurant can present some difficulties. If you’re looking to avoid la-SAG-nuh or chowing down on far-FALL, then consider taking a listen to our handy list of Italian food pronunciations.

      16. spaghetti

    14. minestrone

    13. macaroni

    We’re going to hear similar language, said dick carpenter, an associate professor of leadership, research, and http://pro-essay-writer.com foundations at the university of colorado at colorado springs

    Blog Enhancements: Search and Admissions Forums

  • Law School and LLM Admissions Forum
  • Please feel free to share your admissions questions, thoughts, and concerns.

    I spent some time today adding new features to this blog, which will make it more useful for all of you.

    • College Admissions Forum
      • Search. Squarespace, our hosting company, recently added a search function to its offerings,and I added it to the blog. It seems to work extremely well. So if you are want to research all the posts that I have written on Sloan Masters programs, or any other specific topic, you can easily do so.
      • Forums. I have noticed that more and more of you are posting comments to the blog. (Almost 200 comments on one post.)  And that’s great! I want to make it even easier for you to interact with the Accepted staff and me. I have long felt that many of the applicant forums on the Internet provide too much of the blind leading the sightless. (The BusinessWeek Forum is a notable exception, although even it can lead to a certain neurosis.) Therefore Accepted is going to host the following forums:

        Stay tuned. In the near future we will also add new features to Accepted.com and the MBA Interview Feedback Database.

      • MBA Admissions Forum

      • Grad School and Statement of Purpose Forum
    • Med School, Residency, and Fellowship Admissions
    • Android market to www.trackingapps.org/ receive official twitter app

      Altogether vs. All Together | Writing Service


      We went all together to the party.

      It’s less expensive to buy a computer part by part; you can save a few hundred dollars altogether.Through it all, through the dark times of seemingly daily bereavement and the angry political debates and the bitter divisions of Brexit, we had a television show that brought us all together.

      Altogether, North American sales gained 3.3 percent to $2.66 billion.

    • Altogether means “completely,” “all things considered,” or “on the whole.”
    • Still others have gone out of business or closed their trucks altogether.

    • All together means “everyone together” or “everything together.”
    • They put all the tickets together in a wallet.Altogether, we can say that our team couldn’t have gotten a better result.Prior to that they were all together for the opening of Stockholm’s top website that writes essays for you ‘Mama Mia! The Party’, which was held on January 20, but they didn’t perform on that occasion.

      Altogether is altogether different from all together. It’s not a phrase—it’s a single-word adverb that means “completely,” “all things considered,” “on the whole,” or “all in all”:that makes sure everything you type is clear, effective, and mistake-free.

      It’s often said that the whole isn’t necessarily the sum of its parts. That maxim applies when you turn “every day” into “everyday,” and it’s the same when you turn all together into altogether—you get something completely different.

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      All together refers to all the members of a group. It can mean “everyone or everything together,” or simply “in a group”:

      The Difference Between All Together and Altogether

      After the reception, you should all come together to the garden.

      Get Writing Service It’s free

      Some of the professor’s lecture is altogether impossible to understand.

      More Examples

      It’s not uncommon to see a noun or a verb between the elements of the phrase:

        Independent OnLineChicago Tribune Something else that is noteworthy is with the mi 5 you get greater battery capacity but still have a lighter device great review to look through than the iphone 6s

      5 Writing Tips for your AMCAS Essay


      “Elevate your essay.”

      Accepted.com ~ Helping You Write Your Best

    • Use metaphors and images to enliven your writing. This will help your reader jump into your experience.
    • Avoid clichés. Saying that you “think out of the box” isn’t really the most creative way of stating that you are creative. It’s just too overused.
      • //

      • Use suspense and irony. These elements show depth to your writing and to your personality.
      • Be succinct.
      • This post is part 5 of Accepted’s The Who, Why, What, and How of the AMCAS Essay blog series that outlines specific steps you can take to ace your AMCAS essays.

      So far in this series we’ve talked about the WHO, WHY, WHAT, and HOW of creating an exemplary AMCAS essay. Now we’re going to offer some bonus tips that will help elevate your essay so it’s not just covering the right material in the correct order, but it’s actually written WELL.

    • Use active, lively, vivid verbs. You can “go” somewhere, or you can “meander,” “wander,” “race,” “rush,” etc. Variety enhances your verbiage!
    • There are www.homework-writer.com/ pay to do homework two, three, or four adults in each classroom at any given time regular-course teachers, paraprofessionals, college students, or forest hills community house staff members

      2016 Med Application: New York Medical College

      NYMC has no essay questions but asks for the following information:

      Related Resources:

      • List letter of recommendation authors.

      Jessica Pishko graduated with a J.D. from Harvard Law School and received an M.F.A. from Columbia University. She spent two years guiding students through the medical school application process at Columbia’s PostBacc Program and teaches writing at all levels.

      • How To Upload Medical Terminology To Your Permanent Memory Bank [Podcast]

      Note that if you do not have a committee letter from your school, you must have 3 letters from your undergraduate institution. 2 must be from science faculty (Math does not count as science.), and 1 must be from a faculty member in your undergraduate major.

      NYMC also highly values diversity and active learning, with many programs for students to interact with the community. Their programs include work with high school students and the disabled. As you apply to this school, keep in mind their diversity of clinical experiences available and the wide array of students that the school attracts.

      New York Medical College’s 2016 Secondary Application Essay Questions:

      • List relatives who are alumni

      NYMC Application Timeline:

      • An Incoming MS1 Talks About Med School, Rejection, Blogging & Food

      New York Medical College is located in Westchester, New York and has one of the largest medical education programs in the country. Their researchers and physicians are involved in diagnosing and researching large-scale public health threats. As a result, the school emphasizes community involvement, including public education with respect to preventative health, especially for underprivileged communities in the surrounding area.

      • The Ultimate Guide to Medical School Interview Success [Free Guide]

      5 Strategies For Reducing Secondary Application Stress

      The most successful students I’ve worked with focus on the following areas:

      To stay on top of your secondary applications, use the following strategies to get organized and to help you write better essays. Taking the time to think about how you will approach your secondaries can give you the “big picture” perspective you need to do your best work.  If you’re feeling overwhelmed, trying a new approach can make all the difference in your ability to produce higher quality writing.

      2. Research

      5. Proofreading and Editing

      If you would like professional guidance with your secondary application materials, please consider using Accepted’s Medical School Admissions Consulting and Editing Services, which include advising, editing, and interview coaching for application materials.

      Create a timeline of your life to consult as a useful tool for completing secondary applications.  Be sure to include all major life events—incorporate all your activities and interests.  The more detailed your timeline is, the more useful it will be.  To avoid repetition, highlight or mark those experiences that you have already included in your primary application.  This demarcation will help you to avoid being repetitive in your secondary applications.  As you review your timeline, ask yourself how each individual event or activity has influenced your life goals or has led you towards a career in medicine.  This comprehensive life history will help you to be creative in your secondary essays and encourage you to draw upon your rich and diverse life experiences to convey your commitment to completing a medical education.

      4. Writing Routine

      • Attn Med Applicants: A Class Is Matriculated Every Single Year  [Podcast]

      Secondary applications provide an exciting opportunity for self-reflection.  To fully benefit from this period of introspection, journal daily.  The more frequently you practice expressing your ideas and feelings, the more easily you will be able to engage in the process of self-reflection.  It can be helpful to look at pictures of yourself as you were growing up.  Review your yearbooks and awards.  Write about these experiences and what they meant to you.  As you examine your motivations for wanting to become a doctor, it can be powerful to reconnect to your family history, childhood, adolescence, academic and clinical experiences.  Schedule a time of day that you can work on your secondary applications uninterrupted.  Journal for twenty minutes to warm up.  Approach each question one paragraph at a time to avoid becoming overwhelmed.  Use outlines.  During this time, it is also important to read regularly—especially those authors who inspire you.  The time and effort you put into completing your secondary applications will be evident to your reviewers.  Give them the opportunity to get to know you.

      To demonstrate your interest in each medical school, it is critical to do your research as you complete each secondary—to demonstrate a personal knowledge of their institution.  What is the school’s mission statement?  Does the school have any special programs that you are interested in?  What is the structure of their curriculum?  Where is the school located and do you have personal ties to the area?  It is essential that you draw connections between your interests and the school.  After you have reviewed their web page, what information stands out in your mind?  Create a list of reasons why you are interested in attending the school.  List all of the reasons and then rank them based on their importance to you and your life goals.  Use the ranked items as an outline to draft your response to any questions about why you have applied to their school or how their program will benefit you.

      Depending on how many medical schools you have applied to this cycle, you may have a large volume of secondary applications to return in a short period of time.  To stay on top of all of your deadlines, create a table with the name of the medical school, date you submitted the primary application, date you received the secondary application and the deadline to submit it.  You can also include space to list the date you submit the secondary.  Creating a table to track your progress with each school will allow you to prioritize application tasks based on your deadlines—to maximize your time management skills.  Given the anxiety inherent in the admissions process, any way that you can minimize unnecessary stress will help you to use your energy more constructively.  Being on top of your deadlines will empower you to excel on the tasks that require your best efforts to help you reach the next level.

      Don’t underestimate the power of organization!

      To submit your best work, be sure to proofread and edit all materials before you submit them.  Complete each secondary a few days before the deadline to allow yourself time to engage in this essential final step.  It can be especially beneficial to have friends, family or even professional editors, like me or my colleagues from Accepted.com, review your materials and provide feedback.  This will help you gain valuable insight on how to improve the quality of your application materials—which will lead to an interview and eventually an offer of acceptance.

      1. Time Management

      Related Resources:

      • School-Specific Med Secondary Essay Tips

      3. Timeline

      Alicia Nimonkar is an Accepted advisor and editor specializing in healthcare admissions. Prior to joining Accepted, Alicia worked for five years as Student Advisor at UC Davis’ postbac program where she both evaluated applications and advised students applying successfully to med school and related programs. Explore Accepted.com’s services to see how Alicia can help you achieve your professional dreams in healthcare.

      • Medical School Reapplicant Advice: 6 Tips for Success [Free Guide]
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      Best Character Analysis: Myrtle Wilson – The Great Gatsby | NerdyMates Blog

      What does Myrtle’s life (and tragic ending) say about the American dream?

      Still a bit confused about the whole old money/new money/working class thing? Read about social class in the novel in our post on the role of social classes in this novel.

      We don’t know a ton about Myrtle Wilson’s background except what we can gather from the passing comments from other characters. For example, we get the sense Myrtle loved her husband when they got married, but has since been disappointed by his lack of cash and social status, and now feels stifled by her twelve-year marriage:

      One of the novel’s most important events is also one that can be confusing for students: namely, Myrtle’s death at the end of Chapter 7. How exactly does she end up in the road? What does it have to do with her strange encounter with Tom, Nick, and Jordan in the garage earlier in the day?

      Why do Tom and Myrtle get together? What do they see in each other?

    • When Daisy sees Myrtle in the road, she has to make a quick decision: either run over Myrtle, or swerve into the oncoming car to avoid Myrtle.
    • This description also speaks to the strong physical attraction between Tom and Myrtle that undergirds their affair. This attraction serves as a foil to the more deep-seated emotional attraction between Gatsby and Daisy, the novel’s central affair.

    • Myrtle as a character

      While both characters are willful, impulsive, and driven by their desires, Tom is violently asserting here that his needs are more important than Myrtle’s. After all, to Tom, Myrtle is just another mistress, and just as disposable as all the rest.

      The incident is confusing because we come at it from many narrative angles:

      Myrtle’s death emotionally and mentally devastates George, which prompts him to murder Gatsby (who he mistakes for both his wife’s killer and lover), and then kill himself.

      Michaelis and this man reached her first but when they had torn open her shirtwaist still damp with perspiration, they saw that her left breast was swinging loose like a flap and there was no need to listen for the heart beneath. The mouth was wide open and ripped at the corners as though she had choked a little in giving up the tremendous vitality she had stored so long. (7.317)

      “The only crazy I was was when I married him. I knew right away I made a mistake. He borrowed somebody’s best suit to get married in and never even told me about it, and the man came after it one day when he was out. She looked around to see who was listening: ” ‘Oh, is that your suit?’ I said. ‘This is the first I ever heard about it.’ But I gave it to him and then I lay down and cried to beat the band all afternoon.”

    • Myrtle runs out to the car, waving her arms, likely because she thinks Tom will stop for her and rescue her from George.
      1. Common discussion topics and essay ideas
      2. Mrs. Wilson had changed her costume some time before and was now attired in an elaborate afternoon dress of cream colored chiffon, which gave out a continual rustle as she swept about the room. With the influence of the dress her personality had also undergone a change. The intense vitality that had been so remarkable in the garage was converted into impressive hauteur. Her laughter, her gestures, her assertions became more violently affected moment by moment and as she expanded the room grew smaller around her until she seemed to be revolving on a noisy, creaking pivot through the smoky air. (2.56)

        Best Character Analysis: Myrtle Wilson – The Great Gatsby

      3. a final revelatory confession from Tom about his role in George’s violence in Chapter 9
      4. Myrtle, like George and Gatsby, was obviously not born into money, and instead is relying on her own wits to make it in 1920s America. In a manner quite similar to Gatsby’s, she consciously adopts a different persona to try and get access to a richer circle (while George seems to be the only one relying on honest work – his shop – and honest relationships, through his loyalty to Myrtle, to improve his lot in life).

      5. Michaelis, uncomfortable, finds an excuse to leave.
      6. Gatsby’s explanation of the accident to Nick after the fact

      Unlike Gatsby, who projects an elaborately rich and worldly character, Myrtle’s persona is much more simplistic and transparent. (Notably Tom, who immediately sees Gatsby as a fake, doesn’t seem to mind Myrtle’s pretensions – perhaps because they are of no consequence to him, or any kind of a threat to his lifestyle.)

        In either case, Myrtle’s most important chapters are 2 and 7, so close read those carefully. When writing about her, pay close attention to Myrtle’s interactions with other characters. And if you’re writing an essay that discusses Myrtle as someone trying to live out the American Dream, make sure to address her larger influences and motivations. We’ll take a look at some of these strategies in action below.

        So while the Wilson’s garage is a testament to the struggle of the working class in American in the 1920s, Myrtle and Tom’s apartment is a physical representation of the airs Myrtle puts on and the appearances of wealth she values.

        Why exactly does Myrtle run out into the road?

        By the end of the novel, Myrtle doesn’t seem to have been completely mistaken about Tom’s affection for her. After all, Tom says he that he “cried like a baby” (9.145) when he found dog food for the dog he’s bought her in Myrtle’s apartment. Of course, since it’s Tom, his grief is probably self-pitying than selfless. Either way, their relationship is indicative of both their values: Myrtle’s ambition and Tom’s callousness.

        How does Myrtle’s home reflect her characters, attitudes, beliefs, and values?

        Quick Note on Our Citations

        Our citation format in this guide is (chapter.paragraph). We’re using this system since there are many editions of Gatsby, so using page numbers would only work for students with our copy of the book. To find a quotation we cite via chapter and paragraph in your book, you can either eyeball it (Paragraph 1-50: beginning of chapter; 50-100: middle of chapter; 100-on: end of chapter), or use the search function if you’re using an online or eReader version of the text.

        For readers new to Gatsby, Tom and Myrtle’s relationship can seem a bit odd. There is obvious physical chemistry, but it can be hard to see why the classist, misogynist Tom puts up with Myrtle – or why Myrtle accepts Tom’s mistreatment.

      • Myrtle runs outside.
      • Myrtle quotes
      • Myrtle’s home with George is a dark, hopeless image of working class life in America: it’s an apartment above a bare garage, nestled in the dreadful Valley of Ashes. George is utterly mired in this home, even coated with a thin layer of ash from the factories outside. In contrast, Myrtle is vivacious and free of the ash, which gives her a layer of separation from her actual home.

        Also, this injury foreshadows Myrtle’s death at the hands of Daisy, herself. While invoking Daisy’s name here causes Tom to hurt Myrtle, Myrtle’s actual encounter with Daisy later in the novel turns out to be deadly.

        Myrtle and George fight later that evening, and Myrtle manages to run out of the house after yelling at George to beat her and calling him a coward. Just then, she spots the yellow car heading back for Long Island. Thinking it’s Tom, she runs toward and then out in front of the car, waving her arms. But Daisy is driving the car, and she decides to run over Myrtle rather than get into a head-on collision with an oncoming car. She hits Myrtle, who dies instantly.

        Myrtle Wilson’s Physical Description

        The idea of Myrtle Wilson is introduced in Chapter 1, when she calls the Buchanans’ house to speak to Tom.

      • Myrtle’s history before the novel begins
      • Myrtle Wilson Quotes

      Piecing together these three takes on the incident, this is what happens, in order:

      What’s Next?

      For Myrtle, the affair (her first) is about escape from her life with George, and a taste of a world – Manhattan, money, nice things – she wouldn’t otherwise have access to. It’s clear from how Myrtle moves and speaks that she’s confident and self-assured, and assumes that her relationship with Tom is a permanent ticket into the world of the wealthy – not just a fleeting glimpse.

      “She really ought to get away from him,” resumed Catherine to me. “They’ve been living over that garage for eleven years. And Tom’s the first sweetie she ever had.” (2.112-7)

      She begins her affair with Tom Buchanan after he sees her on the train and later presses against her in the station:

      • Meanwhile, Gatsby and Daisy are driving back from Manhattan to East Egg after the Plaza Hotel showdown.
      • Still a bit confused about the climax of the novel? Get a detailed recap of Chapters 7, 8 and 9 to understand exactly how the three deaths play out.

        This is a prompt that you can obviously use for any of the characters, but it’s especially interesting in Myrtle’s case, since she has two residences: the house above the auto shop that George owns, and the apartment that Tom Buchanan rents for her in the city.

        It’s less likely, but not impossible, that you will be assigned a Myrtle-specific essay.

      • Michaelis’s inquest testimony about the accident
      • SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips


        Myrtle’s role in the story isn’t as large as Daisy’s, Gatsby’s, or Tom’s. However, she is crucial to the plot of the story, and especially to its tragic conclusion. Find out more about Myrtle’s role in Gatsby in this guide!

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        She pointed suddenly at me, and every one looked at me accusingly. I tried to show by my expression that I had played no part in her past.

        “Crazy about him!” cried Myrtle incredulously. “Who said I was crazy about him? I never was any more crazy about him than I was about that man there.”

        Then I heard footsteps on the stairs and in a moment the thickish figure of a woman blocked out the light from the office door. She was in the middle thirties, and faintly stout, but she carried her surplus flesh sensuously as some women can. Her face, above a spotted dress of dark blue crepe-de-chine, contained no facet or gleam of beauty but there was an immediately perceptible vitality about her as if the nerves of her body were continually smouldering. She smiled slowly and walking through her husband as if he were a ghost shook hands with Tom, looking him flush in the eye. (2.15)

          “Beat me!” he heard her cry. “Throw me down and beat me, you dirty little coward!” (7.314)

        • additional information from Michaelis in Chapter 8 about George’s actions both before and after Myrtle’s death
        • Article Roadmap

          Myrtle’s apartment with Tom is overstuffed and gaudy, and she seems much happier and more at home there. The mix of high-brow pretension in the decor with her low-brow entertainment speaks to how Myrtle values the appearance of wealth and sophistication, but doesn’t actually understand what upper-class taste looks like the way Tom and Daisy Buchanan do.

          1. Before the accident, George has begun to suspect Myrtle’s affair.
          2. She is oblivious about upper-class life: she tells her sister at one point Tom doesn’t divorce Daisy because Daisy is Catholic. This is a small inside joke on Fitzgerald’s part – since Tom and Daisy are part of the community of uber-WASPy residents of East Egg, there’s almost no chance that Daisy could be Catholic. That Myrtle thinks accepts Tom’s lie shows that she is not a well-schooled as she thinks she is about the life and customs of the elite class she wants to be a part of.

            To see Myrtle’s life events alongside those of the other characters, check out our timeline of The Great Gatsby.

          3. Daisy first drives toward the oncoming car, but at the last second, turns back into her own lane and hits and kills Myrtle instead.
          4. Unlike Nick’s description of Daisy, which focuses on her voice, mannerisms, and charm, and unlike his description of Jordan, which focuses on her posture and athleticism, Nick’s description of Myrtle focuses almost entirely on her body itself. Perhaps this fits with her role as Tom’s mistress, but it also indicates Nick sees little in Myrtle in terms of intellect or personality.

          5. Actions in the novel
          6. For Tom, the affair – just one in a string he’s had since his honeymoon – is about taking and being able to get whatever he wants. Having an affair is a show of power. Especially since he’s been taking her around popular restaurants in Manhattan (2.4), it’s clear he’s not exactly hiding the relationship – instead, he’s flaunting it. He’s so assured of his place in society as a wealthy man, that he’s free to engage in some risky and socially inappropriate behavior – because he knows no one can actually touch his wealth or social position.

          7. Outside, Myrtle sees the yellow car and assumes it’s Tom on his way back to Long Island.
          8. Later on, in Chapter 7, George starts to suspect she’s having an affair when he finds her dog’s leash in a drawer at the house. He locks her upstairs in their house, determined to move out west once he gets the money from the car sale he’s waiting on from Tom. Myrtle glimpses Tom, along with Nick and Jordan, as they drive up to Manhattan in Gatsby’s yellow car.

            In most books and movies, the “other woman” – the woman having an affair with a married man – is often painted as a villain. But what about in The Great Gatsby, a novel in which both married women (Myrtle Wilson and Daisy Buchanan) are having affairs? Especially given that one (Daisy) ends up killing the other (Myrtle), is Myrtle just a one-note “other woman,” or is there more to her?

            But Myrtle aims too high, and ends up killed when she mistakes Gatsby’s yellow car for Tom’s, and runs out in the road assuming the car will stop for her.

          9. setup from Nick’s point of view
          10. Posted by Dr. Anna Wulick | May 12, 2016 4:00:00 PM

            Even in death, Myrtle’s physicality and vitality are emphasized. In fact, the image is pretty overtly sexual – notice how it’s Myrtle’s breast that’s torn open and swinging loose, and her mouth ripped open at the corners. This echoes Nick’s view of Myrtle as a woman and mistress, nothing more – even in death she’s objectified.

            Still, before the novel begins, Tom has gotten comfortable showing Myrtle around in popular restaurants and doesn’t hide the affair. Perhaps this causes Myrtle to misunderstand what she means to Tom: she doesn’t seem to realize she’s just one in a string of mistresses.

            Myrtle Before the Novel Begins

          11. Tom, Jordan, and Nick drive up to the gas station in the yellow car. Tom brags that the car is his. Myrtle looks downstairs and concludes two things: first, that Jordan is Tom’s wife, and second, that Tom owns the yellow car.
          12. When George confronts his wife about her affair, Myrtle is furious and needles at her husband – already insecure since he’s been cheated on – by insinuating he’s weak and less of a man than Tom. Also, their fight centers around her body and its treatment, while Tom and Daisy fought earlier in the same chapter about their feelings.

          13. Character Analysis

            This moment is also much more violent than her earlier broken nose. While that moment cemented Tom as abusive in the eyes of the reader, this one truly shows the damage that Tom and Daisy leave in their wake, and shapes the tragic tone of the rest of the novel.

          14. Nick’s description of the accident scene right after after Myrtle’s death
          15. Myrtle’s taste in decor overlaps quite a bit with King Louis XIV’s.

          16. Later that evening, Myrtle fights with George about being locked up. We don’t see much of this fight. All we know is that she cries “throw me down and beat me!” (7.314) to George.
          17. At the same time, another car is driving in the opposite direction towards Manhattan.
          18. We get our first look at Myrtle in Chapter 2, when Nick goes with Tom to George Wilson’s garage to meet her, and then to Myrtle’s apartment in Manhattan for a party. On that day, she buys a dog, has sex with Tom (with Nick in the next room), throws a party, and is fawned on by her friends, and then ends up with a broken nose when Tom punches her after she brings up Daisy. This doesn’t prevent her from continuing the affair.

            Summary of Myrtle’s Action in the Novel

            Myrtle’s complete misunderstanding of Tom, as well as her violent death, fit the overall cynical message in the book that the American Dream is a false promise to those born outside of the wealthy class in America. As hard as anyone tries, they don’t stand a chance of competing with those in America born into the old money class. They will never understand the strange internal rules that govern the old money set, and will never stand a chance of being their equal.

            In this moment, we see that despite how dangerous and damaging Myrtle’s relationship with Tom is, she seems to be asking George to treat her in the same way that Tom has been doing. Myrtle’s disturbing acceptance of her role as a just a body – a piece of meat, basically – foreshadows the gruesome physicality of her death.

          19. George locks Myrtle up above the garage, saying “She’s going to stay there till the day after to-morrow, and then we’re going to move away” (7.311).
          20. “I married him because I thought he was a gentleman,” she said finally. “I thought he knew something about breeding, but he wasn’t fit to lick my shoe.”

            “Daisy! Daisy! Daisy!” shouted Mrs. Wilson. “I’ll say it whenever I want to! Daisy! Dai—-“

            Myrtle desperately wants to come off as sophisticated and wealthy despite her humble roots. Nick finds her efforts tacky and vulgar, and he spends a lot of time commenting on her clothes, mannerisms, and conversational style.

            The death car.

            The fact that Tom sees Myrtle as disposable but Myrtle hopes for more in their relationship is painfully apparent at the end of Chapter 2, when she insists on bringing up Daisy, and Tom responds by breaking Myrtle’s nose. But despite this nasty encounter, the two continue their relationship, suggesting that this kind of abuse is the norm for Tom’s affairs, and Myrtle is too eager to stay in the new world she’s found – or even believes that Tom will still leave Daisy for her – that she stays as well.

        Learn more about Myrtle’s marriage and her relationship with Tom over at our post about love and relationships.

        You will most likely be asked to write about Myrtle in relation to other characters (especially Daisy), or in prompts that ask you to compare the “strivers” in the book (including also Gatsby, George Wilson) with the old money set (Tom, Daisy, Jordan). To learn how best to approach this kind of compare and contrast essay, read our article on common character pairings and how to analyze them.

        Here we see Myrtle pushing her limits with Tom – and realizing that he is both violent and completely unwilling to be honest about his marriage.

        Making a short deft movement Tom Buchanan broke her nose with his open hand. (2.125-126)

        Common Essay Topics/ Areas of Discussion

      • Physical description
      • The graphic and bloody nature of Myrtle’s death really sticks with you.

        Here, we see Myrtle transformed from her more sensuous, physical persona into that of someone desperate to come off as richer than she actually is. Wielding power over her group of friends, she seems to revel in her own image.

        “You were crazy about him for a while,” said Catherine.

        Book Guides

        I was going up to New York to see my sister and spend the night. He had on a dress suit and patent leather shoes and I couldn’t keep my eyes off him but every time he looked at me I had to pretend to be looking at the advertisement over his head. When we came into the station he was next to me and his white shirt-front pressed against my arm–and so I told him I’d have to call a policeman, but he knew I lied. I was so excited that when I got into a taxi with him I didn’t hardly know I wasn’t getting into a subway train” (2.120).

        In the same way that Gatsby overestimates his value to Daisy, Myrtle overestimates her value to Tom. Even if Tom had been driving the car, and even if he had stopped for her, he would never have whisked her away from George, divorced Daisy, and married her. Furthermore, the fact she assumed the garish yellow car was Tom’s shows how little she understands the stiff, old money world Tom comes from.

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